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                                           Ken Lee

Saturday, November 22, 2008

PRECAUTIONARY STEPS FOR INVESTIGATIVE EXPERIMENTS IN PAPER 3

PRECAUTIONARY STEPS FOR INVESTIGATIVE EXPERIMENTS:

No.

Type of experiment involving

Precautions that can be taken

1

Light

a. Experiment must be carried out in darkened room.

b. Lens, screen and object must be in line

c. Avoid parallax error by placing the eye such that the line of view is perpendicular to the scale of the ruler.

2

Spring

a. make sure the spring is not loaded beyond the elastic limit. (spring return to original length when load is taken off).

b. Avoid parallax error by placing the eye such that the line of view is perpendicular to the scale of the ruler.

3

Electric

a. All connections must be secure/tight.

b. Off the switch after readings are taken to prevent wires from heating up (resistance increase)

c. Avoid parallax error by placing the eye such that the line of view is perpendicular to the scale of the ammeter/ voltmeter.

4.

Heat

a. Liquid must be stirred constantly so that temperature rises evenly.

b. Alluminium block must be wrapped with insulating material to prevent heat lost.

c. Thermometer bulb should be smeared with oil to give better thermal contact with the block.

d. Avoid parallax error by placing the eye such that the line of view is perpendicular to the scale of the thermometer.

5

Measuring instruments

such as ammeter, voltmeter, metre rule ...

a. Avoid parallax error by placing the eye such that the line of view is perpendicular to the scale read.

b. Take into account zero error of instrument.

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